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These bacteria have pigments that absorb specific wavelengths of light and give them their characteristic colors. Many cyanobacteria have the blue pigment phycocyanin, a light-harvesting pigment it absorbs red wavelengths of light.
Cyanobacteria all have some form of the green pigment chlorophyll, which is responsible for harvesting light energy during the photosynthetic process Current Biology, Some others also have the red pigment phycoerythrin, which absorbs light with the green region and bestows the bacteria with a pink or red color.
The eukaryotic algae are polyphyletic , meaning that they did not evolve from a single common ancestor. This is clearly demonstrated in our current understanding of the tree of life — a family tree of all living organisms organized by their various evolutionary relationships.
Eukaryotic algae are found distributed among many different groups, or major branches of the tree.
Archaeplastida includes plants and a variety of photosynthetic algal species such as the chlorophytes a subset of green algae , charophytes mainly freshwater green algae and glaucocystophytes unicellular freshwater algae.
Chlorophytes are the green algae that commonly form lichen partnerships with fungi. Dinoflagellates are found within Alveolata.
These are primarily unicellular marine and freshwater organisms. Many dinoflagellates have lost their plastids — the site of photosynthesis — through the course of evolution and are phagotropic or live as parasites.
Still other algal species are found distributed amongst Alveolata, Excavata, Rhizaria and Chromista Current Biology, Probably the most important contribution of algae to our environment and well-being is the generation of oxygen through photosynthesis.
According to a review article published in the journal Biofuels, petroleum is partially derived from ancient algae deposits. As a result, researchers are looking into renewable alternatives.
Algal biofuels are a promising replacement for fossil fuels. All algae have the ability to produce energy-rich oils and several microalgal species naturally accumulate high levels of oil in their dry mass.
Moreover, algae are found in diverse habitats and can reproduce quickly. Table Of Contents. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites.
Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. LiveScience - What Are Algae? IndiaNetzone - Algae.
Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Ralph A. See Article History. To be competitive and independent from fluctuating support from local policy on the long run, biofuels should equal or beat the cost level of fossil fuels.
Here, algae-based fuels hold great promise,   directly related to the potential to produce more biomass per unit area in a year than any other form of biomass.
The break-even point for algae-based biofuels is estimated to occur by For centuries, seaweed has been used as a fertilizer; George Owen of Henllys writing in the 16th century referring to drift weed in South Wales : .
This kind of ore they often gather and lay on great heapes, where it heteth and rotteth, and will have a strong and loathsome smell; when being so rotten they cast on the land, as they do their muck, and thereof springeth good corn, especially barley After spring-tydes or great rigs of the sea, they fetch it in sacks on horse backes, and carie the same three, four, or five miles, and cast it on the lande, which doth very much better the ground for corn and grass.
Today, algae are used by humans in many ways; for example, as fertilizers , soil conditioners , and livestock feed. Algaculture on a large scale is an important type of aquaculture in some places.
Maerl is commonly used as a soil conditioner. Naturally growing seaweeds are an important source of food, especially in Asia.
They provide many vitamins including: A, B 1 , B 2 , B 6 , niacin , and C , and are rich in iodine , potassium , iron, magnesium , and calcium.
Algae are national foods of many nations: China consumes more than 70 species, including fat choy , a cyanobacterium considered a vegetable; Japan, over 20 species such as nori and aonori ;  Ireland, dulse ; Chile , cochayuyo.
Sea lettuce and badderlocks are salad ingredients in Scotland , Ireland, Greenland , and Iceland. Algae is being considered a potential solution for world hunger problem.
The oils from some algae have high levels of unsaturated fatty acids. Fish oil contains the omega-3 fatty acids, but the original source is algae microalgae in particular , which are eaten by marine life such as copepods and are passed up the food chain.
Scientists developed the ATS, which consists of shallow, foot raceways of nylon netting where algae colonies can form, and studied its efficacy for three years.
They found that algae can readily be used to reduce the nutrient runoff from agricultural fields and increase the quality of water flowing into rivers, streams, and oceans.
Researchers collected and dried the nutrient-rich algae from the ATS and studied its potential as an organic fertilizer. They found that cucumber and corn seedlings grew just as well using ATS organic fertilizer as they did with commercial fertilizers.
Various polymers can be created from algae, which can be especially useful in the creation of bioplastics. These include hybrid plastics, cellulose based plastics, poly-lactic acid, and bio-polyethylene.
The alga Stichococcus bacillaris has been seen to colonize silicone resins used at archaeological sites; biodegrading the synthetic substance.
The natural pigments carotenoids and chlorophylls produced by algae can be used as alternatives to chemical dyes and coloring agents.
Carrageenan, from the red alga Chondrus crispus , is used as a stabilizer in milk products. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For places called Alga, see Alga disambiguation. For other uses, see Algae disambiguation. Diverse group of photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms.
An informal term for a diverse group of photosynthetic eukaryotes. Temporal range: Mesoproterozoic—present . Further information: wikispecies:Algae.
Main article: Lichen. Main articles: Coral , Coral reef , and Symbiodinium. Main article: Sea sponge. Further information: Conceptacle. Further information: Seaweed fertiliser.
See also: Edible seaweed and Algae powder. Main articles: Carrageenan and Chondrus crispus. Archived from the original on 7 March Cambridge University Press.
Introduction to Botany. San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. The Concise Dictionary of Botany. Oxford University Press. American Journal of Botany.
Archived from the original on 27 February Archived from the original on 2 July Retrieved 25 August Farblose Algen. Ein beitrag zur Evolutionsforschung.
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Algarum unicellularium genera nova et minus cognita, praemissis observationibus de algis unicellularibus in genere New and less known genera of unicellular algae, preceded by observations respecting unicellular algae in general Archived 20 April at the Wayback Machine.
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